We used to have things in computers for decades called embedded systems.
Embedded systems are basically simple devices with hardware and software which are designed to do one or a few simple computer related things within another device. They could be television remote controls or be inside of a medical device or a kitchen stove. They will have a microcontroller and some means for i/o and a few other parts but no operating system or way to get programmed easily.
Many say that the study of embedded systems is making a comeback and that is good because it teaches designers to apply the knowledge from several disciplines like electrical and computer engineering and computer science in embedded platforms found in everyday things.
Now technically embedded systems can be defined as “the underlying intelligence behind smart electronic devices and the IOT.”
Many consider embedded devices to be a target for hackers.
In terms of security there are considered to be 3 types of attacks possible on connected objects and embedded systems. Software attacks and noninvasive hardware attacks and invasive hardware attacks.
(under construction Oct 11, 2021)