There are hundreds if not over 1,000 different specialized computer languages that one can learn.
For the robotics beginner of today it seems that the best choice may be to learn Python and C++.
The advice could be different if you are trying to get a job in a top 5 tech company or a small startup that is not about robotics.
In these cases one might talk about developing systems or apps and the importance of choosing a language that handles the backend better then the front end.
The old timers from the 1980s would always say that its all about being able to learn. They would say that once you know the fundamentals of programming that you can learn just about any programming language.
Every older robotics company developed their own proprietary language to control their own brand of robots.
There is a neat program that allows you to simulate dozens of robots on the screen.
But here are some of the older established robotics companies and the languages that they have used for years.
ABB- Rapid programming language
KUKA- Kuka robot language
Comau – PDL 2
Yaskawa – Inform
Kawasaki – AS
Fanuc – Kavet
Staubi – Val3
Universal Robot – VRscript
In the 1970s and 1980s warehouse and assembly companies used what were called CNC lathes and these were like modern day robots and used languages like G code and C and Lua scripting.
CUDA is a term often referenced and it is considered a software layer to the GPU and not so much its own language.
Some IDEs or integrated development environments include names like geany, Brackets, Eclipse, Virtual Studio Code Blocks.
Node Red is a gaphical ide.